Volume two

Chapter 21

"The Law: Concerning Persons and Property. [21:1 - 22:17]
"Law relating to Persons. [1 - 32]"
"Capital Punishment. [13 - 17"
"Violance: Relating to Persons. [18 - 32]"
"Laws as to Property; Theft, Fire, Trusts. [21:33 - 22:15]"

This Bible Study is written by Roger Christopherson, and it's transcription/ location
is provided by 

The word "Exodus" means "the way out, or going out", and it is the book of Redemption, as was given in Exodus 6:6, and 15:13. It was no accident that the children of Israel ended up in bondage in Egypt, for God told Abraham that his seed would go into bondage in Genesis 15:13. "Know of a surety that thy seed shall be a stranger in the land that is not theirs, (and shall serve them; and they shall afflict them) four hundred years; and also that nation, whom they shall serve, will I judge: and afterward shall they come out with great substance." As we studied the first twenty chapters, we saw that God truly kept His Word to father Abraham.

We have read and studied to this point in Exodus that certain times are important to God, for He is told His people that those dates are to be remembered and passed down to all future generations. God brought the ten plagues on Pharaoh and the Egyptians, and before God commissioned the tenth plague to claimed the life of the firstborn of all Egypt, God instituted THE PASSOVER. He instructed Moses to tell the children of Israel to select the best of their lambs on the tenth day, and on the fourteenth day after the vernal Equinox, slay the lamb, and put the blood over and on the sides of the door posts entering their homes. then go into the house and eat the lamb and be ready, for the next day they would be leaving Egypt. That night the death angel passed over Egypt, and killed the firstborn of both man and beast of every home.

So why are we to remember that time of the Passover? Because Jesus became the Passover Lamb for one and all times. He was the perfect sacrifice for the sins of all those that would by faith believe in Him, and through repentance in Jesus name, follow Him in their life. That Passover lamb back in Egypt was the symbol of what was to come fifteen hundred years later, and it is important to understand the meaning of Passover to us even today.

Sure the bondage in Egypt ended on that fifteenth day after the first day of the year, that God established to be the moment of the Spring Vernal Equinox. The children of Israel gathered their belongings, and in haste departed out of the land of Egypt, however, Pharaoh had a change of mind as to allowing the Israelites to leave Egypt. Pharaoh sent his army after them to bring them back into bondage, yet God would not allow it.

The children of Israel camped along side the shore of the Red sea, while Pharaoh's army was coming upon them. God set His pillar of fire between the children of Israel and the Egyptian army, and when Moses lifted his staff over the Red sea, the waters parted and the children of Israel crossed over on dry land. After they were save on the other side, God allowed Pharaoh's army to pursue after them, and when they were in the middle of the sea, God allowed the waters to bury them in the sea. Not one of Pharaoh's soldiers lived.

The Children of Israel continued on their way through the wilderness on their way to the promise land, however they took a detour in their path that went by mount Sinai. Then on the forty seventh day after Passover, God told Moses that He would speak to the People, and told Moses to have the people clean themselves up, and get their Sunday best cloths on for the meeting. That time when God would present Himself to the people would come in three days; fifty days after Passover, and this day to our generation is called PENTECOST. Pentecost was the first time that God revealed and talked directly to the people there at the base of Mount Sinai, and we know from Act 2: that it was also the day when the Holy Spirit entered into those men and women that had gathered there at Pentecost. It was the example of how it would be in the time of the end, when God's Spirit would speak through the sons and daughters, and everyone would hear and understand in their own tongue back home.

Acts 2:1 "And when the day of Pentecost was fully come, they were all with one accord in one place."

Acts 2:2 "And suddenly there came a sound from heaven as of a rushing mighty wind, and it filled all the house where they were sitting."

Acts 2:3 "And there appeared unto them cloven tongues like as of fire, and it sat upon each of them.

Acts 2:4 "And they were all filled with the Holy ghost [Spirit], and began to speak with other tongues, as the Spirit gave them utterance.

As we read on in Acts 2, we see that people from all over the world were in Jerusalem to celebrate the feast day of Pentecost, as Moses required of the children of Israel. When these disciples came into the streets after being filled with the Holy Spirit, every man heart them speak in the very dialect of their home town where they came from. Peter then stood up to remind them that this is what Joel the Prophet told them would happen in the last days, for their sons and daughter would speak, and there would be no need for an interpreter. Then Peter quoted from Joel 2:28 - 32.

God instructed Moses and Aaron to establish this day of Pentecost as a feast day to be passed on to all generations of the children of Israel to the time of the end, and as we read in Mark 13:11, it will also be the time when the elect are delivered up, that the Holy Spirit will again speak through them. When God spoke to the children of Israel the earth shook, the mountain trembled, the storm was great with all its lightning and thunder, and it shook the children of Israel to where they did not want to have that talk with Him again. They told Moses, you talk to God and tell us what He said to you.

God then spelled out to the people through Moses a code for the people through TEN COMMANDMENTS. The first five of these Commandments dealt with man's relationship to God, and the last five of the Commandments with Man's relationship to his neighbor. So this brings us to this twenty first chapter of Exodus, where God will be giving us His General laws dealing with Worship, and Laws dealing with persons and property. God gave us these first ten commandments to live by, but He is now going to go into greater detail of how we are to live with, and get along with our neighbors. When we try to follow these laws and commandments of God, God promises us that we will be blessed in our lives, and when we don't, there will be a price to pay for our willful violation of His laws.

Exodus 21:1 "Now these are the judgments which thou shalt set before them."

God is telling Moses that these are the rules and regulations by which you will judge the people. These instructions in large part are directed event to our generation.

Exodus 21:2 "If you buy an Hebrew servant, six years he shall serve: and in the seventh he shall go out free for nothing."

This is not talking about slaves, but one of our own people that has chosen to serve a master for six years. This was not a wicked thing to have servants at this time, but quite the contrary, for the children of Israel were on the move through the wilderness, and many would have starved had they not been allowed to take in these less fortunate ones that could not provide for themselves. Here they are just a few months on the road back to the promise land, and the children of Israel would be another forty years before the crossing of the Jordan river into the promise land. Many sold themselves into servitude, to be servants of those that had much. This form of service is very common today, in all parts of our society. It is nothing more than having a good job, with God setting the rules for the boss that you are working for. So we will also see that many of our laws today stem right from these same set of rules that God is giving to Moses and the children of Israel out there in the wilderness.

When a father could not provide for his own children, he had to sell his children to another person so that both that child and the man could exist. In many cases today, when a person can't provide for himself, the state will step in to take over the needs of the child and even the entire family. These laws are nothing more than plain common sense.

Exodus 21:3 "If he came in by himself, he shall go out by himself: if he were married, then his wife shall go out with him."

If this man came in as a single man, by himself with no family, after the six years, that is exactly how he would leave the service of the man he was working for. However, if he were married and had children, he would take his wife and children when he left the service of that master. God is saying that servitude can not break up the family.

Exodus 21:4 "If his master have given him a wife, and she have born him sons or daughters; the wife and her children shall be her master's, and he shall go out by himself."

Now we are talking about a slave, where there is ownership of the slave by a master. If the slave were given a wife while he was under the service of this master; even though he is free to leave after six years, the wife and children are not. Remember it is the Master that is providing for the wife and children, not the slave, and just as he could not provide for the family under slavery, when he is free, that income will stop. The purpose for this law was for the protection of the family members, when there would be no competent provider to do so for the wife and kids.

Exodus 21:5 "And if the servant shall plainly say, `I love my master, my wife, and my children; I will not go out free:' "

If the man loves his wife and kids, and down not want to leave them, this is all that he has to do by the law. This man must state clearly that He will chose of his own accord not to be free. He states this before the judge, and the Judge then places him under the permanent custody of the Master; to provide for that servant and his family all his days. He is saying that, "I like my job, and I chose to work for you the rest of my life. I made that commitment to the company that I worked for, and they provide well for my family and retirement for the past 38 years. There is nothing new under the sun, and we see masters following these rules today. When you get a job you love, and it provides well for you, you stay with it. It's only common sense. Its also part of God's law.

Exodus 21:6 "Then his master shall bring him unto the judges; he shall also bring him to the door, or unto the door post; and his master shall bore his ear through with an aul; and he shall serve him for ever."

At this time there was not an established group of judges yet, but God is our chief judge. The children of Israel were camped in tents at the base of Mount Sinai, and Moses is up on the mountain. The aul is what we would call a center punch, to make a hole in the ear of the person. Ear piercing is quite common today, and it is a marking of someone in slavery. It is the mark of someone that is servant to another person.

In that the seven year period is mentioned here; in Leviticus 25:13, 28, and 40; all people on the jubilee year are set free for life. That is just the way that it is. If you place yourself in slavery with the jubilee year in three years, going back to the door post to have your ear pierced, would only be for three years, however, it is your choice to stay or leave then. That was just the way it is.

Exodus 21:7 "And if a man sell his daughter to be a maidservant, she shall not go out as the menservants do."

If because of poverty, a man sell his daughter to be a maidservant, the master of the house will not be allowed to work that daughter as they would one of the menservants. That Master is required by law to treat her as you would any other lady.

Exodus 21:8 "If she please not her master, who hath betrothed her to himself, then shall he let her be redeemed: to sell her unto a strange nation he shall have no power, seeing he hath dealt deceitfully with her."

In the law it is a lot more restrictive that it reads here, for if this daughter conducts herself in an evil manner, if she is a naughty person. If this man has purchased her to be his wife, God is telling us that that man can not sell that woman to another people. If she is a Hebrew, she can only be sold to a Hebrew man, if she is an Moabite, then she can only be sold to an Moabite, and so on. The father sold her in the first place to get money for the rest of the family to live. An example of this was in Boaz and Ruth in the book of Ruth. Boaz was able to take her, whereas the other man was not. You cannot sell her to an foreigner [of different ethnos], that is what "strange" means.

Exodus 21:9 "And if he have betrothed her unto his son, he shall deal with her after the manner of daughters."

If a man has bought a woman for one of his sons, it means that this master would have to treat this lady in the same manner that he would one of his own daughters. This is law, God's law, and common sense.

Exodus 21:10 "If he take him another wife; her food, her raiment, and her duty of marriage, shall he not diminish."

In the case here, if a man take on another wife, saying that he has two wives, his duties to each of the wives shall be the same, and neither one shall be diminished, or lessoned. That husband with two wives will not embarrass either of the wives.

Exodus 21:11 "And if he do not these three unto her, then shall she go out free without money."

"The three", of course refers to the duty of providing for her sufficient food needs like the other wife is eating, her proper and equal clothes as the second wife is getting, and the sexual duties between man and wife, then she is free. So if the man does not provide these three to that first wife, then she is free to leave with out giving the man anything. She does not have to stick around to be belittled by the rest of the family.

Exodus 21:12 "He that smiteth a man, so that he die, shall be surely put to death."

"Smiteth", is to "wound him with a deadly blow". This smiting is called murder today. This is the sixth commandment taking a little deeper in depth. God is going to spell out what murder is and what it is not.

Exodus 21:13 "And if a man lie not in wait, but God deliver him into his hand; then I will appoint thee a place whither he shall flee."

This means that if a man does not premeditate the taking of another man or woman's life, but it does happen. In the case of an accidental death, God is telling Moses and the judges that rule over that man, to provide a place for this man to flee from the family of the slain person. This is so that additional problems will not develop between family members over the loss of the loved one. Remember that this death is not part of a criminal homicide, but by an accident. That is God's way.

Exodus 21:14 "But if a man come presumptuously upon his neighbour, to slay him with guile; thou shalt take him from mine altar, that he may die."

However, if a man come purposefully, intentionally on his neighbor, and premeditate an act to kill that person, then that is homicide, murder. God is telling you not to tell him that he can go to Christ and at the altar of God and that he can escape the punishment at the throne of God while he is here in his flesh body. No, God is telling you to try him and send that soul directly to Him. That is called Capital punishment, and it is very Scriptural. Salvation is not there for him in this flesh body. Surely you can understand what John said, in I John 3:15 "Whosoever hateth his brother is a murderer; and ye know that no murderer hath eternal life abiding in him." No murderer can have salvation because he must be put to death and his soul sent to the Father, The altar will not save him, "take him from the mine altar, that he may die." That murderer must stand before God and the person that he murdered, and the trial that counts is in heaven.

Woe to those that have condemned a man by false witness, or tainted evidence for the murder trial for the conviction of that innocent soul is then on their hands. That one bearing the false witness will stand at the throne of God condemn of the same murder that they accused an innocent man of, and had executed. No man will get away with any murder before God, if an innocent man is executed, but the true murderer still must stand on trial where it counts, before the throne of God. There are no secrets there, for God can read your mind and know the true intent of your act. God is waiting for that murderer in heaven, and he may get away with it here on earth for a while, but judgment time is coming. Sure judges in these flesh courts will let the guilty walk, but not in God's court. Remember, there are no unsolved mysteries in heaven. "No murderer hath eternal life abiding in him". This is New Testament, just the same as God's law of the Old Testament. "Thou shalt take him from mine altar, that he should die."

If you have a quick temper that would allow you to boil up within yourself to plot another man's or woman's life, you better think twice of what you are doing. This goes far beyond your flesh life, and on into the condition of our very soul. If the hatred boils up within you, it is time to walk away, and rethink your entire situation. If you are a pervert and take the life of a child, how willing will that precious soul be to forgive you at the throne of God? That murdered soul will be at your true trial in heaven, and that soul does have the ear of Almighty God. That child would be far more willing to forgive that murderer than God would, for you have murdered one of His children. So look at this verse again, "Thou shalt take him from mine altar, and not even mention Christ's name, that he should die." So what does Christ say about this law of putting a murderer to death.

In Matthew 5:18-22 Jesus tells us that "Till heaven and earth pass, one jot or one tittle shall in no wise pass from the law, till all be fulfilled." That time when it is all fulfilled is after the seventh trump sounds, after the thousand year Millennium age is completed and the great white throne judgment is over and completed. Then all is fulfilled.

Exodus 21:15 "And he that smiteth his father, or his mother, shall be surely put to death."

The father and mother are in God's place to the child, and there are many very bad parents. Those parents brought you into the world age of flesh man. The produced the embryo where God placed your soul in that formed mass in your mother's womb at conception, and you formed then into the human flesh being that you have become. Sure there has been controversy over the sanctity of life as to when the soul entered into that embryo, and most of the argument comes because of man's desire to free himself from the obligation of his sinful and willful acts to find pleasure. However, no matter how bad your parents are, and how poor judgment they have shown, they were still the ones that God selected to all your soul to enter into this age of flesh man. For that reason alone, we are to honor then. This does not allow them to abuse you, but God respects and honors the family unit. It is from the family that gives stability to all societies, no matter how primitive.

Exodus 21:16 "And he that stealeth a man, and selleth him, or if he be found in his hand, he shall surely be put to death."

Man is made in the image of God, and when a person steals from another person, it's called kidnapped, it is an insult to God. Today there are many unsolved cases of kid-napping, but everyone will be resolved at the throne of God. Again, there are no unsolved mysteries to our heavenly Father. When the kidnapper is caught, "he shall surely be put to death."

Exodus 21:17 "And he that curseth his father, or his mother, shall surely be put to death."

This sounds very severe, to put a child to death over cursing his or her father or mother. However, the cursing spoken of here is "revileth", or as in # 7043 in Strong's Hebrew dictionary; "brings into contempt, despise or curses", and even though the laws of our land today look the other way, there still is a judgment day coming. When there are hard feelings, it's time to trun and walk away, and just don't say a thing. God will not tolerate your cursing.

Exodus 21:18 "And if men strive together, and on smite another with a stone, or with his fist and he die not, but keepeth his bed:"

Two men are having a fight between each other, and one picks up a stone and hits the other the stone or his fist; but the injured man did not die but is bed ridden:

Exodus 21:19 "If he rise again, and walk abroad upon his staff, then shall he that smote him be quit: only he shall pay for the loss of his time, and shall cause him to be thoroughly healed."

However if that man that was bedridden heals to the point that he can walk with a cain; that man that smote him will be innocent of the act. Only the man that hit the injured man shall pay for the loss of time on the job of the injured man, and and also pay for his medical bills. This is direct to those men that like to settle their argument with their fists, or the use of something in their fists. You lose even when you win the fight, for you are required to pay all the loss of time of the one you hit, including the damage you did to him. In our court system today, you can be required to pay far more than just these damages. This in reality is still part of the ten commandments, for if you have brotherly love toward that neighbor, you will never reach the point of wanting to do him harm. Notice that each of these verses are part of one of the ten commandments that God gave us in Exodus 20:1-17.

Exodus 21:20 "And if a man smite his servant, or his maid, with a rod, and he die under his hand he shall be surely punished."

When a man kills one of those servants under him, that death shall be avenged. You can count on a punishment.

Exodus 21:21 "Notwithstanding, if he continue a day or two, he shall not be punished: for he is his money."

However this is telling us that if the death did not occur right away, then he will not be punished. It just doesn't make sense when you first read this verse, for the point that this is directed to is that this servant was a slave to him. It is looking at the loss as being financial only. So the point that must enter into the judgment is the act of the servant, what was he doing at the time of being hit with the rod. Was he attacking the master or stealing from the master? There is no set rule dealing with master and slave, when it comes to discipline. By law you must judge each and every act as it comes before the judge independently. Every case has a set of circumstances surrounding it, and each case is judged by itself.

Exodus 21:22 "If men strive, and hurt a woman with child, so that her fruit depart from her, and yet no mischief follow: he shall be surely punished, according as the Woman's husband will lay upon him; and he shall pay as the judges determine."

This verse is considering the fact that two men are fighting, and a pregnant woman comes between them in the brawl, and she loses her child by miscarriage in that fight. She is trying to brake the fight up and protect her husband. Both men and the woman will be take before the elders, the judges, and they will asses the damages to the woman, providing that there is no mischief followed after the fight was over; that followed the loss of that unborn child.

Exodus 21:23 "And if any mischief follow, then thou shalt give life for life."

That child in the womb is considered a soul in the womb, and if the fight carried on after the damage was done to the woman, then the man that caused the loss of life will be tried as a murderer; a life for life.

Exodus 21:24 "Eye for eye, tooth for tooth, hand for hand, foot for foot,"

Exodus 21:25 "Burning for burning, wound for wound, stripe for stripe.

The judgment on the man that caused the death of the child will be judged with the proper penalty for the damage that he had caused. The eye and teeth will not heal, are used for all parts of the body. If one man causes damage to another in anger, he pays the price with the loss of that shame part of the body.

Exodus 21:26 "And if a man smite the eye of his servant, or the eye of his maid, that it perish; he shall let him go free for his eye's sake."

If a man causes his servant or maid to be blind in an eye, then that master shall let that maid or servant go free. That lost eye just bought that person's freedom. Appendix 15 in the Companion Bible gives us the laws of Khammurabi that existed prior to the laws that were given on mount Sinai to Moses. It also contains this same law.

Exodus 21:27 "And if he smite out his manservant's tooth, or his maidservant's tooth; he shall let him go free for his tooth's sake."

Again this also applies, and for the loss of body part the man or maid will be allowed to go free: Stripe for stripe, foot for foot, and tooth for tooth. It gets down to common sense, in both the ancient law, as in the law of Sinai. If our modern day courts were judged properly, it would follow through even today, however we do not judge people today by these same laws of God, but by precedent. When one man makes a judgment in his court, that judgment is used in other cases of similar circumstances. It doesn't matter what God says, and that is what make it hard, for facts and absolutes are out, and man's thinking and imagination sets the standard. When some case comes up without a precedent, they get all flustered, and it has to go to a higher court. Laws by Precedent is stupidity to the highest degree, and that is why our court system is all bogged down and loaded down. Man has taken out the simply task of Yea and Nay, yes and no; stripe for stripe, and tooth for tooth, that is in God's law. If murder is involved, and the proper witnesses are there where there is no doubt, send the murderer's soul to the Father and God has required in His law. That murderer becomes a walking dead man, ordered by God himself. It is God that makes the sentence on that soul, and peace comes back into the community that the murderer has been taken out of.

Exodus 21:28 "If an ox gore a man or a woman, that they die: then the ox shall be surely stoned, and his flesh shall not be eaten; but the owner of the ox shall be quit."

Now this gets to animal life. If the ox murdered a man, even though the ox is clean meat, God is telling us that that ox can not be eaten. At that moment of death, that animal has become a murderer also, and it becomes unclean meat by God's standards. There is no clean flesh over the lost of human life; though the ox is killed, the owner of the ox is innocent of the taking of life. The owner had no idea that the ox would rise up and gore the man or woman.

Exodus 21:29 "But if the ox were wont to push with his horn in time past, and it hath been testified to his owner, and he hath not kept him in, but that he hath killed a man or woman; the ox shall be stoned, and his owner also shall be put to death."

This now deals where that same ox had attacked another person before, and did nothing about it. He knew that he had a wild animal on his hands, and did not pen the creature up. The owner then becomes responsible for the death of that person. It is like having a loaded weapon and leaving it out for a child to play with. The thousand pound bull become your gun to kill someone with. If there is a death to a man or woman, then the owner and the ox are both put to death as murderers. This is just plain common sense to an animal owner.

Exodus 21:30 "If there be laid on him a sum of money, then he shall give for the ransom of his life whatsoever is laid upon him."

What this is saying is that this man with the wild ox, could have the opportunity to buy his way out of his conviction of death hanging over his head. It seems that the rich always find a way out of their trouble, as is present in this law. If the loss of the husband has left the widow or children with out an income, by this law they can set the price of the ransom laid on the owner, and if he pays that ransom the death sentence is lifted. Is it fair, it's the law of God. It is common sense to seek provision for the family in their loss of life. Notice that it is the injured family member that must chose between the money of vengeance on that man's life.

Exodus 21:31 "Whether he have gored a son, or have gored a daughter, according to this judgment shall it be done unto him."

I like this verse for God is telling us that it just doesn't matter if it is male or female, boy or girl, son or daughter that gets killed, the same and equal judgment shall be given out no matter which have lost their life. God considers each of same value.

Exodus 21:32 "If the ox shall push a manservant or a maidservant; he shall give unto their master thirty shekels of silver, and the ox shall be stoned."

This is not a Hebrew slave spoken of here. It sets the price of a wounded foreign slave at thirty shekels of silver. Remember back in the New Testament when Jesus was betrayed by Judas. The price given for the betrayal of our Lord Jesus Christ was the same as this foreign slave that lost his life to the ox. That thirty pieces of silver could not be used in the Temple, so it was used to by the potters field. Christ's blood was used to by that potters field, to put a lot of these clay pots we call flesh man back together, when by faith in Christ, and repentance in Jesus name, they come under the blood of Christ and move into a new life.

Exodus 21:33 "And if a man shall open a pit, or if a man shall dig a pit, and not cover it, and an ox or an ass fall therein;"

Here again is a law using just plain common sense. If you dig a pit, you cover it over so any man or animal coming along will not fall into that pit you have dug. God's laws covers just simple things that any man or woman with half a brain should know what to do. Is this law done away with by Jesus death on the cross? Of course not, just go out in the streets today anywhere there is digging going on, and of course there are signs and protection for that dug site.

Exodus 21:34 "The owner of the pit shall make it good, and give money unto the owner of them; and the dead beast shall be his."

If the trap or pit that you have dug catches an other man's animal, then you pay the man the value that his animal was worth. However if the man pays the going value for the animal, then owner of the pit has the right to keep the animal and use it for food.

Exodus 21:35 "And if one man's ox hurt another's, that he die; then they shall sell the live ox, and divide the money of it; and the dead ox also they shall divide."

This is talking about two different men, and each man own an ox. One man's ox rises up and hurts the other man's ox, and that ox dies. Remember that the ox was used at this time for plowing, and doing work on the farm. Notice that no man is not involved in the actions of either of these two animals, but one is left with a live animal, and the other a dead ox. This law says that the live animal is sold and the money divided between the two men, while the dead ox is divided equally between the two men to be used as food for their families. Both men are at fault for not keeping their animals separated, yet they both share in the gain, yet lose the use of the live animal.

Exodus 21:36 "Or if it be known that the ox hath used to push in time past, and his owner hath not kept him in; he shall surely pay ox for ox; and the dead shall be his own."

However if one of the animals was known to be wild, and this had happened before, and the ox rose up and killed the neighbor's ox, then that neighbor is to be awarded the payment, and he also can keep the dead ox for his food table. The man with the live ox will pay the full price for the other man to go out and buy another ox that he can use. God's laws in each of these cases is just common sense: Man is responsible for his actions and possessions. Today this is why we carry insurance for it is used for those times when we overlook something and either have loss to ourselves or to the life or property of our neighbor. Does this sound like something that is done away with through the cross, of Christ? Of course it is not. The problem today in this final generation is that so many people are not willing to take on the responsible of their own actions or that of their family or property to their fellow man. God's law is true and just, it is the laws that man puts on himself and those that create those unjust laws that cause the confusion that exists today in the system.


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