Nehemiah Chapter 10
"The Covenant and the Ordinances."
Bible Study is written by Roger Christopherson, and it's
Nehemiah 10:1-8"Now those that sealed were, Nehemiah, the Tirshatha, the son of Hachaliah, and Zidkijah,"
"Those that sealed" are in reference to the group called "the Great Synagogue", and these are stated by the Talmudical writings, and given as the unanimous voice of tradition. This group started with one hundred twenty members, and later reduced to seventy. These members represent the five divisions of the nation. These divisions are 1). the chiefs of the priests; 2). The chief Levites; 3). the chiefs of the People; 4). The representatives of the cities; 5). The doctors of the law.
This "Great Synagogue" lasted one hundred and ten  years, and was active in it's work from Nehemiah to the time of Simon the Just, and when it's work was considered completed, it became know as the "Sanhedrim" of the New Testament. This council was the supreme court of the Jewish nation, and the very body that rejected the kingdom of Christ, and passed judgment to crucify the Messiah, Jesus Christ.
So as you read these names, and see the dedication of these men, take special note of the 28th verse, especially of the presence of the Nethinims [Kenites], for by the time our Lord Jesus Christ walks the earth, these Nethinims will have complete control of this sealed council called "The Great Synagogue", and in Jesus time they will be the "Sanhedrim".
"Seraiah, Azariah, Jeremiah,"
"Pashur, Amariah, Malchijah,"
"Hattush, Shebaniah, Malluch,"
"Harim, Meremoth, Obadiah,"
"Daniel, Gennethon, Baruch,"
"Meshullam, Abijah, Mijamin,"
"Maaxiah, Bigai, Shemaiah: these were the priests."
Nehemiah 10:9-13 "And the Levites: both Jeshua the son of Axaniah, Binnui of the sons of Henadad, Kadmiel;"
"And their brethren, Shebaniah, Hodijah, Kelita, Pelaiah, Hanan,"
"Micha, Rehob, Hashabiah,"
"Zaccur, Sherebiah, Shebaniah,"
"Hodijah, Bani, Beninu."
Nehemiah 10:14-27 "The chief of the people; Parosh, Pahath-moab, Elam, Zatthu, Bani,"
"Bunni, Azgad, Bebai,"
"Adonijah, Bigvai, Adin,"
"Ater, Hizkijah, Azzur,"
"Hodijah, Hashum, Bezai,"
"Hariph, Anathoth, Nebai,"
"Magpiash, Meshullam, Hezir,"
"Meshezabeel, Zadok, Jaddua,"
"Pelatiah, Hanan, Anaiah,"
"Hoshea, Hananiah, Hashub,"
"Hallohesh, Pileha, Shobek,"
"Rehum, Hashabnah, Maaseiah,"
"And Ahijah, Hanan, Anan,"
"Malluch, Harim, Baanah."
Nehemiah 10:28 "And the rest of the People, the priests, the Levites, the porters, the singers, the Nethinims, and all they that had separated themselves from the people of the lands unto the law of God, their wives, their sons, and their daughters, every one having knowledge, and having understanding;"
Do you see how neatly they have mixed themselves into the house of Judah, in fact if you did not know the difference you would think they are Israelite.
Nehemiah 10:29 "They clave to their brethren, their nobles, and entered into a curse, and into an oath, to walk in God's law, which was given by Moses the servant of God, and to observe and do all the commandments of the Lord our Lord, and His judgments and His statutes;"
Nehemiah 10:30 "And that we would not give our daughters unto the people of the land, nor take their daughters for our sons:"
Nehemiah 10:31 "And if the people of the land bring ware or any victuals on the sabbath day to sell, that we would not buy it of them on the sabbath, or on the holy day: and that we would leave the seventh year, and the exaction of every debt,"
Nehemiah 10:32 "Also we made ordinances for us, to charge ourselves yearly with the third part of a shekel for the service of the house of our God."
Nehemiah 10:33 "For the shewbread, and for the continual meat offering, and for the continual burnt offering, of the sabbaths, of the new moons, for the set feasts, and for the holy things, and for the sin offerings to make an atonement for Israel, and for all the work of the house of our God."
The meat offering, or also called the Meal offering is offered to gain favor with God. In the earlier days it used the sacrifice by blood, which was not offered in the later days [Genesis 4:3-5].
The burnt offering, or Olah in the Hebrew, was a sacrifice over an open flame, and caused the sweet smell of offering up to heaven in the smoke. The purpose of the burnt sacrifice was to commit the sacrifice totally to God, with nothing withheld.
the sin offering, or Chattath in the Hebrew tongue, means "to sin by missing the mark in sins of commission. It means to purge from such sin (Psalm 51:7). In the burnt offering the blood went upward in in the smoke, while in the Sin offering the blood flows downward and outward, thus flowing out of the camp. The Burnt offering sacrifice was committed on the altar, while the latter went to the ground.
The Trespass offering, or Asam in the Hebrew, relates to the sins of omission, that is the sins that arise from errors, or so-called sins of ignorance or negligence.
The Wood offerings, or the Ishsheh in the Hebrew, is referring to any offering made by burning fire. [Leviticus 24:7, 9]
These sacrificial offerings were temporary coverings for the sins of the people, until the time of Christ, when His shed blood was spilled to the ground for the once and only sacrifice necessary to bring sinful man back into fellowship with the Eternal Father.
Nehemiah 10:34 And we cast the lots among the priests, the Levites, and the people, for the wood offering, to bring it into the house of our God, after the houses of our fathers, at times appointed year by year, to burn upon the altar of the Lord our God, as it is written in the law:"
Nehemiah 10:35 "And to bring the firstfruits of our ground, and the firstfruits of all fruit of all trees, year by year, unto the house of the Lord;"
The firstfruits offering are the first and best of the crop, or your productivity, that is offered to God in thanks for His blessings. The tithe is the Lords, and is not yours to give, however the firstfruits are the personal expression of your love of Our Heavenly Father, and a very personal form of worship. Many Christians today still find it a great privilege to honor God with their firstfruits.
Nehemiah 10:36 "Also the firstborn of our sons, and of our cattle, as it is written in the law, and the firstlings of our herds and of our flocks, to bring to the house of our God, unto the priests that minister in the house of our God:"
The firstborn of herds, flocks, household, or crops, are all part of firstfruits.
Nehemiah 10:37 "And that we should bring the firstfruits of our dough, and our offerings, and the fruit of all manner of trees, of wine and of oil, unto the priests to the chambers of the houses of our God; and the tithes of our ground unto the Levites, that the same Levites might have the tithes in all the cities of our village."
Keep in mind that the tithe is the Lords, just as sure as the taxes of you income belong to the government. What you give up and beyond is considered your offerings.
Nehemiah 10:38 "And the priest the son of Aaron shall be with the Levites, when the Levites take tithes: and the Levites shall bring up the tithe of the tithes unto the house of our God, to the chambers, into the treasure house."
Nehemiah 10:39 "For the children of Israel and the children of Levi shall bring the offering of the corn, of the new wine, and the oil, unto the chambers, where are the vessels of the sanctuary, and the priests that minister, and the porters, and the singers: and we will not forsake the house of our God."
Notice that this chapter is parallel with the last chapter of Ezra [10:1-44]. Consequently all beyond it is supplementary [chronologically].
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