Romans Chapter 11

"God's Purpose Regarding the Remnant Accomplished [1-10]."

"Israel Provoked to Jealousy [11-16]."

"The Wild Olive Graft [17-24]."

"The Hardening of Israel [25-32]."

"Paul's Joy Regarding God's Purpose [33-35]."

This Bible Study is written by Roger Christopherson, and it's transcription/ location is provided by

In the last three chapters and including this chapter we see part of the plan of God that reaches out to all of God's children, Israel and Gentile alike. All races are God's children, and in Christ there is salvation to all that will believe on Jesus Christ and repent of their sins in Jesus' name. We can see the love of God, and His plan to place Himself back into the hearts of His children.

The issue that is in the background of all of the chapters of Romans is, "Is God unfair?" God is working here through Paul's writing to let you and I know that He is totally fair in all His judgments. You may not understand God's reasoning, but in His plan we can see He is always just.

Israel was the chosen, because these people are the chosen through which the Seed Jesus Christ would come. That Seed Jesus Christ is the Savior of all people. Paul discussed in the last chapter that because of that promised Seed, or Christ, now all could be saved. But to Israel, the Father said, "all day long I have stretched forth my hands unto a disobedient and gainsaying people." Romans 10:21

So now we have the response to the prior three chapters.

Romans 11:1 "I say then, hath God cast away His people? God forbid. For I also am an Israelite, of the seed of Abraham, of the tribe of Benjamin."

Here we have Paul's true genealogy. He was of the seed of Abraham, an Israelite of the tribe of Benjamin. Many have taught that Paul was a Roman, and a Jew, For His father was in Rome, as a free born Roman citizen, and Paul was educated there in Rome. He was a Jew, because he lived and continued his education in the land of Judaea, and all people living in the land of Judaea were considered Jews. However, through birth and genealogy, Paul was from the tribe of Benjamin.

The House of Judah [Jews] was made up of the two tribes of Judah and Benjamin, and a small part of the Levite tribe. In time the Nethenimins [the Kenites given in service] and their families mixed in and completely took over the duties of the scribes and priests, as recorded in Ezra 8:15. The territory given by Joshua to Benjamin when the Children of Israel came out of the wanderings in the wilderness included Jerusalem. Jerusalem was the capital city of the nation of the House of Judah, and thus Paul would be a Jew by means of location also.

Romans 11:2 "God hath not cast away his people which he foreknew. Wot ye not what the scripture saith of Elias? how he maketh intercession to God against Israel, saying,"

In this word "foreknew", Paul is talking about His people that He knew in the first earth age prior to this earth age of the flesh. Remember the three world ages? God foreknew those souls of His people prior to this flesh age.

Elijah [Elias in the Greek] was the prophet of prophets, and he was the one that stood with Moses and Jesus on the mount of transfiguration as recorded in Matthew 17:3. "And, behold, there appeared unto them Moses and Elias talking with Him."

Romans 11:3 "Lord, they have killed thy prophets, and digged down thine altars; and I am left alone, and they seek my life."

This is what Elijah said. Paul is bringing in a very interesting subject here that the Lord has revealed to him. Elijah even asked God to take his life, at one time, but God always protected him. Why? God's prophecy had to survive, and the events surrounding Elijah had to take place exactly as they were written. If Elijah had failed then God would have been a failure, and not able to keep His Word. That would never happen, because God always is true to His Word. So when Elijah was ready to give it all up, God answered Him.

Romans 11:4 "But what saith the answer of God unto him? I have reserved to myself seven thousand men, who have not bowed the knee to the image of Baal."

Though this is history, in that God had reserved for Himself seven thousand men that would never bow to the image of Baal, Elijah did not know those seven thousand people that had stayed faithful to Him. This quotation is recorded in I Kings 19:10-18.

Romans 11:5 "Even so then at this present time also there is a remnant according to the election of grace."

The remnant was the remnant that God chose, such as Paul and the disciples and others, from generation to generation, to bring the message and truth of the Gospel of Christ. Elijah himself and John the Baptist in the spirit of Elijah were part of that remnant as they were teaching God's Word. They were passing God's Word down through the generations of years to deliver it in the final generation, to the election of God.

Anyone that sees the truth of God's overall plan and picture are part of the remnant, and this doesn't refer to salvation, because there will be millions that have the salvation that God offers to all through repentance and believing in His Son. But we are talking here about the remnant here that delivers God's Word. These people have eyes to see and ears to hear and know the truth of God's plan.

The remnant is the person that will carry the truth, and perhaps even die and return to the Father before the end generation has been completed at the seventh trumpet. But we have come to that end generation now whereby many people are hearing the Word and do know and believe that God's Word is true. They have faith enough to make God's Word part of their lives. Christianity to them is a reality, and not just a religion.

This is not something that God just gave to the remnant; but it was something that was earned in the great conflict of the first earth age when Satan rebelled against God. Remember the election is from the first earth age, and the reason for the election is that these souls were justified then, as recorded in Ephesians 1:4, 5, and also in Romans 8.

Romans 11:6 "And if by grace, then is it no more of works: otherwise grace is no more grace. But if it be of works, then is it no more grace: otherwise work is no more work."

To understand this verse, you must understand the difference between grace and works. Remember also that subject of these first six verses is "God's purpose for the remnant", which are those people that God had chosen in the first earth age because of their stand against Satan at Satan's rebellion, as well as the others that God would use for the negative part of God's plan.

Back in the ninth chapter we discussed the potter and those lumps of clay that the potter had chosen. The potter chose those lumps of clay to form them into the vessels that they would be. It was fair that God chose Pharaoh to play the role that he played towards the children of Israel. It was also fair that God would harden his mind. God caused the hardening of Pharaoh's mind to fulfill the promises that God made in his Word to Abraham.

The question then comes, if God hardened Pharaoh's mind and God caused Pharaoh to do what he did, will God have the right to judge Pharaoh for the hardening that He caused to happen? The answer is, of course God won't. But God will give Pharaoh the opportunity to repent, and he probably did when Christ freed the captives, as it is written in I Peter 3:19 "By which also He went and preached unto the spirits in prison,"

The point is that God is always fair. God had to have a remnant that could bring the truth of His Word to pass. This remnant has lived from generation to generation down through the years, and they have been hearing and teaching those manuscripts that the prophets wrote down. By the work of the Holy Spirit we are allowed to see how God used certain people to fulfill His Word: To make all prophecies come to pass exactly as they were written. There are no accidents in the completion of those prophecies.

Romans 11:7 "What then? Israel hath not obtained that which he seeketh for; but the election hath obtained it, and the rest were blinded"

Israel is not the "election", for the "election" is within all races. They are the ones that made a stand in the first earth age. The "election" are the ones that have the eyes to see and the ears to hear and understand God's Word, while the rest were blinded. Those other's minds and hearts were hardened to the Scriptures, and the Word of God became foolishness to them. Yet, these elect are those "set aside ones" from Romans eight. They are the ones that were not deceived by Satan in the first earth age, nor will they be deceived in this earth age. In other Words these elect are the proven tested children of God. These elect are the ones that God can intercede in their lives, even without their asking Him for the help.

Why then were the others blinded to the Word, and harden their hearts?

Romans 11:8 "(According as it is written, "God hath given them the spirit of slumber, eyes that they should not see, and ears that they should not hear";" unto this day."

Paul is telling us that the reason that the rest of the world is blind to the truth, is because it written in the Scripture. It is for the elect to take the time to check it out. This word "slumber" in the Greek, would better be translated "stupor". In the Greek it is "Katanuxis". God placed the spirit of stupor on all those that are not part of the elect. They are not asleep but they are in a stupor, and they just don't know what is going on, and they will not in this earth age.

Down through all generations, even to this final generation, those eyes will not see, and their ears will not hear and understand the Word of God. Why? Because God told us that this would happen way back in Isaiah 29:10; "For the Lord hath poured out upon you the spirit of deep sleep, and hath closed your eyes: the prophets and your rulers, the seers hath He covered."

God even gave this prophesy to Moses in Deuteronomy 29:4; "Yet the Lord hath not given you an heart to perceive, and eyes to see, and hears to hear, unto this day."

The "heart to perceive", is the mind to understand. By the hardening of the heart of those that would not believe, God caused that whole generation of Moses day to die in the wilderness and not go into the promise land, because of their disbelief. The only ones to enter into the promised land were the young, and the two that did have faith in God's ability to give Israel the victory. Those two were Joshua and Caleb.

What God is telling us then in Romans 11:8, is that even when it looks like the whole population has sunk into this stupor, and hardness of heart; God as reserved His elect to Himself, and they will be protected and know the truth in their mind and not be deceived. This applies to every generation, to Moses time, Isaiah's generation, to Paul's age, and also to us in this final generation.

Just as Moses roamed the wilderness for an entire generation of forty years, and when the generation of the stupor died off; then all the youth that had matured, entered that promise land in victory. There is a generation that will spiritually die off, and fall to the point of this spiritual stupor. Then upon the arrival of the Antichrist [Satan] and his locust army of fallen angels, every last one to them will be deceived and worship the Antichrist in ignorance, thinking him to be the true Christ.

They will do this in their ignorant stupor, because they willingly listened to their false prophets, religious leaders and religious seers, as they spouted off their traditions of men. God's elect that He has set aside will not in that stupor, for they will know the Antichrist for who He is. The elect are prepared because God has opened their minds. God will give His elect a mind that will see what is going on before them, and hear the word and know the truth from deception. Upon the return of Jesus Christ they will be ready to enter the Millennium age as victors, and not in shame.

Romans 11:9 "And David saith, "Let their table be made a snare, and a trap, and a stumbling block, and a recompense unto them:"

This was written in Psalm 69:22; "Let their table become a snare before them: and that which should have been for their welfare, let it become a trap."

What is your table? The "table" is the place where you eat, and the famine for the end times is not for the lack of food, but for the Word of God. Amos 8:11; "Behold, the days come, saith the Lord God, that I will send a famine in the land, not a famine of bread, nor a thirst for water, but of hearing the words of the Lord."

If you are not real careful, that stumbling stone that we studied in Romans 9:33 that was Christ will be the stumbling stone for you in the end times. If you do not know the order of events that brings us to the time of the end, then that "table" or place that you feed from can lead you into worshipping the false messiah. The traditions taught in the church houses of today are waiting to hear the false messiah say, "I've come to fly you away." Their table is teaching them the traditions of men, placing them in a spiritual stupor.

Revelation 9:4 tells us that those without the "seal of God", which is the "knowledge of God's Word in their minds", are blinded and in the stupor; their table, or teaching will be their own trap. If you are asking, Why would God blind them? There is a reason and we will see it as we read on.

Romans 11:10 "Let their eyes be darkened, that they may not see, and bow down their back alway."

God is saying he will give them a heavy load to carry, and take away some of their blessings. In this generation the load can get very heavy if you are not in tune with God's Word.

Romans 11:11 "I say then, Have they stumbled that they should fall? God forbid: but rather through their fall salvation is come unto the Gentiles, for to provoke them to jealousy."

Is the reason that God has allowed them to stumble and fall in a blind stupor to destroy them? God forbid, no way! This is the answer, through their fall salvation is opened up to the Gentile, plus the fact that God can provoke His own people to become jealous and return to Him. By their jealousy they will be driven away from their traditions, and back to God's Word.

The covenant was made to certain people, and it left many people out of the covenant. The Gentile nations did not have the law, and without following the law to the letter there was no salvation. Then Christ came and paid the price and salvation was open to all that would in faith believe and repent in Jesus' name.

Romans 11:12 "Now if the fall of them be the riches of the world, and the diminishing of them the riches of the Gentiles; how much more their fullness?"

'The diminishing of them", is "the loss of them". Because of the fall of Israel the people of all Gentile nations will have the riches of salvation. Then when Israel returns to the Lord, how much more will the fullness of God's kingdom be with Israel and these added souls of the Gentiles.

Romans 11:13 "For I speak to you Gentiles, in as much as I am the apostle of the Gentiles, I magnify mine office:"

Remember Paul's commission? It is given in Acts 9:15; "But the Lord said unto him, "God thy way: for he [Paul] is a chosen vessel unto Me, to bear My name before the Gentiles, and kings, and the children of Israel:" The "Kings" are the elect of the Gentiles.

Paul is saying, I tell you this and teach this because it glorifies the office of the Father. Paul's office is the magnifying of the name of Christ, and leading Gentiles, the kings and queens of the ethnos, as well as the children of Israel to Christ. God had a plan and this is His plan. The most important way to see if you have eyes to see and ears to hear, is to ask yourself: Do I know the order of events that will take place prior to the Antichrist's arrival? During Satan's time of deception and wonders that will fool all the people on earth, Am I aware of those wonders that shall take place? Do you know that very shortly the false messiah will come?

As one of God elect, and by your sealing of God's Word in your mind, do you know you will be required to stand against Satan? If you do, then you have eyes to see and ears to hear. We are not talking about whether you are a sinner or not, for all have sinned and come short of God's glory. We are talking about the knowledge of knowing what is to come on the eart at the time of the end from God's Word. We are required to repent of all sins as they happen, especially when we are saved, for that is what our freedom in Christ is all about.

Romans 11:14 "If by any means I may provoke to emulation them which are my flesh, and might save some of them."

Romans 11:15 "For if the casting away of them be the reconciling of the world, what shall the receiving of them be but life from the dead?"

Paul is saying that what ever he can do to provoke those of Israel [Paul's flesh] to return to the Lord, it will be worth it. In doing so, it will be like bringing them back from the dead. Why? Because they are spiritually dead.

Romans 11:16 "For if the firstfruit be holy, the lump is also holy: and if the root be holy, so are the branches."

This is saying that if the lump that they were made from is holy, then they also are holy. The root of Jessie is Jesus Christ, and all persons who have repented of their sins, and obtained salvation by faith in Jesus Christ are the branches. If Christ is holy, and we are in Christ then we also are holy. That holiness is not in ourselves but in Christ, for our sins were taken from us and put under the blood of Christ. This is why we pray in Jesus' name, for our only worthiness before the throne of God, is when when our credentials is Jesus' name.

Romans 11:17 "And if some of the branches be broken off, and thou, being a wild olive tree, wert graffed in among them, and with them partakest of the root and fatness of the olive tree;"

The "wild olive tree" are the Gentile nations, which include even the ten tribes of the house of Israel that call themselves Gentiles. They are grafted into Christ by the adoption to become children of God. We can partake of the root, the blessings and freedom that we have in Christ, and be part of the olive tree, which is His kingdom. It is when we are part of that olive tree that we have eternal life.

Romans 11:18 "Boast not against the branches. But if thou boast, thou bearest not the root, but the root thee."

Don't let your vanity and pride get the best of your boasting against those branches that were broken off, but by boasting, the root that provides the life flowing into the branches may also cut you off. Why? Because you are a wild tree branch grafted into a tame tree.

Jesus said in John 15:5; "I am the vine, ye are the branches: He that abideth in me, and I in him, the same bringeth forth much fruit: for without me ye can do nothing."

John 15:6 " If a man abide not in me, he is cast forth as a branch, and is withered; and men gather them, and cast them into the fire and they are burned."

If you and I are branches in the tree of Life, or Christ, then we are expected to bear fruit to be part of that tree. The trunk of the tree doesn't produce the fruit, but the fruit comes from that branches attached to the trunk, getting their nourishment from the root system, and bearing the fruit of the type that that branch is suppose to bear. A pear branch grafted on to the apple tree does not give apples, but it gives pears. Our fruit is planting the seeds of truth in the minds of sinners where ever we are grafted or planted, of the love of God for them. The fruit is winning souls to Christ in what ever capacity that God has for you in His plan. How will you know where your branch is grafted in? By studying God's Word.

Now keep in mind that it is our heavenly Father that does the pruning of these branches, and when you boast He will do some pruning, for there is no boasting in and of ourselves. For when we are in Christ, He gets all the glory.

Romans 11:19 "Thou wilt say them, "The branches were broken off, that I might be graffed in."

That is the reason that the branches were broken off, so that the Gentiles could be graffed in.

Romans 11:20 "Well; because of unbelief they were broken off, and thou standest by faith, Be not highminded, but fear:"

Israel deserved to be broken off because of their lack of faith, for they were a gainsaying people. Though they deserved to be broken off, it still didn't mean that God didn't love them. Paul is warning those graffed Gentiles that became part of the branches of Christ, not to be high-minded, but to revere God in reverence.

Romans 11:21 "For if God spared not the natural branches, take heed lest He also spare not thee."

If you become high-minded and out of touch with the Father, God would not hesitate in doing to you the same that He did to Israel. God did not spare Israel the natural branches, so why would would He spare you? You were part of the wild olive branch in the first place. This is a warning from Paul that we should constantly remind ourselves that it is Christ that gets all the glory, and our heavenly Father does the pruning.

Romans 11:22 "Behold therefore the goodness and severity of God: on them which fell, severity; but toward thee, goodness, if thou continue in His goodness: otherwise thou also shalt be cut off."

Paul is telling us to stop and look at both sides, the goodness and the severity [cutting off] by God of those which fell away. God is very fair and we can see His goodness towards us as we study and grow in Him, and strive to do His will. To those that turn their back on the Lord, they shall be "cut off". "Cut off" in the Strong's Greek dictionary means to "hew down, hinder, and frustrate." When you fall away from the Word and our Lord Jesus Christ, you will become frustrated and separated from the goodness of the blessings of the Lord.

Romans 11:23 "And they also, if they abide not still in unbelief, shall be graffed in: for God is able to graff them in again."

God is not giving up on anyone and he doesn't count anyone out. When you have drifted out of God's grace and later repent of your sin, the freedom that we have in Christ removes all of those sins from the judgment of God. We become grafted into the "tree of Life" again, which is Christ. Your stand before the Lord is up to you, for when you have repented in Jesus name, and believe on Him, your standing before the Father is based on the righteousness of Christ, who's blood paid the price for those sins.

Romans 11:24 "For if thou wert cut out of the olive tree which is wild by nature, and wert graffed contrary to nature into a good olive tree: how much more shall these, which be the natural branches, be graffed into their own olive tree?"

Romans 11:25 "For I would not, brethren, that ye should be ignorant of this mystery, lest ye should be wise in your own conceits; that blindness in part is happened to Israel, until the fullness of the Gentiles be come in."

The blindness is the stupor that God sent upon those that cannot understand the plan of God, and see the prophetic signs around them. Remember Luke 21:24; "And they shall fall by the edge of the sword, and shall be led away captive into all nations: and Jerusalem shall be trodden down of the Gentiles, until the times of the Gentiles be fulfilled." Christ is going to return to earth at the fullness of the Gentiles.

What happens then?

Romans 11:26 "And so all Israel shall be saved: as it is written, "There shall come out of Sion the Deliverer, and shall turn away ungodliness from Jacob:"

Romans 11:27 "For this is My covenant unto them, when I shall take away their sins."

This happens at the end of the Millennium age, not now, nor in the flesh. Why will this be? Because in the Millennium age all souls will be in their incorruptible bodies, and they will know Satan for what he is, as liar and deceiver, and they will have known Jesus Christ personally for that thousand year period.

Romans 11:28 "As concerning the gospel, they are enemies for your sakes: but as touching the election, they are beloved for the fathers' sakes."

Concerning the gospel from the standpoint of Israel's enemies, they are in a blind stupor. As for the election, God protects them because the elect are the ones that bring forth the truth.

So why does God bring this blindness and stupor on many people? Any sin committed in ignorance, or blindness is not a sin before the Father. That is why we shall have the Millennium, and we will have the thousand years of teaching and discipline. It is written in Revelation 20:5; "But the rest of the dead lived not again until the thousand years were finished. This is the first resurrection."

Dead here takes on a different name, it means they are spiritually dead, and their souls are still mortal [or liable to die] even though their body is incorruptible and will not age.

According to this all Israel will still see and recognize Christ at the end of the Millennium. However, there will be some other people that will not, and they will fall for Satan's deceptions when Satan is released for a season at the end of the Millennium age. In other words, Because of God's love for some people, He will blind them and put them into a stupor in this earth flesh age, to protect them from committing a sin that is unforgivable, during the time of the Antichrist. This is why you will never get them to see the truth no matter how hard you try, for it for their protection that this stupor comes.

This is also why we should be very patient while we are planting the seeds of the gospel. Some people are blind to the simplicity that Christ taught, as to the order of events, and the many other prophecies that are even now taking place daily before our eyes. It is not for us to judge these souls that God has placed in this stupor, for only God will do the judging, and that time of judgment comes only after the Millennium age.

When you lived in your soul body at the end of the first earth age, and you took a stand against Satan during the overthrow, what type of body were you in? Were you in a flesh body where you could only use about 7 to 9 percent of your intellect and mind? That is what is happening to us in these flesh bodies.

Let me then ask you this, if God judged the elect before the foundation of this flesh age, when all souls were in their more perfect state, how could God judge man in the flesh body with all of it sinful habits and limits of understanding? Friend, the Millennium age is the equalizer to those that have the stupor on them, for then they will have total recall, and there will be no limits of understanding that this flesh body has placed upon each of us. This is just a seed for thought.

There are no free rides in God's judgment, and what you get you deserve because God is always fair. Those of the election are no better then anyone else, it is merely that God has chosen them because of a stand that they took in that first earth age, judged them then, and placed them in His plan for this earth age.

Ephesians 1:4 "According as He hath chosen us in Him before the foundation of the world [kosmos, earth age], that we should be holy and without blame before Him in love:"

Ephesians 1:5 "Having predestinated us unto the adoption of children by Jesus Christ to Himself, according to the good pleasure of His will,"

God has an remnant of people of His election that have lived in each generation of this flesh age, and this remnant of the election are those that God uses to fulfill His Word. It is not them that accomplishes the work, but God accomplishes His work through them. God is the potter, and we are the clay to be formed into what ever vessel that is useful to the Father to fulfill His purpose.

Romans 11:29 "For the gifts and calling of God are without repentance."

When God calls someone, some man may try to take that gift of God's calling away from him. This could be because of misconduct, or any of many reasons. Men and women in these flesh bodies are not perfect, for we all fall short of the glory of God, but that gift that God has given us, whether it be teaching, or visiting the sick, or music, or prayer, what ever it is, it is given by God for you to use "without repentance". God will not take it back, even though you set it to one side, and run from God, you will be accountable for what you do with that gift.

All those that have the eyes to see and hears to hear with understand of God's Word, usually have been gifted in one way or another. Another way of putting this is God never goes back on His Word even though you may go back on yours.

Romans 11:30 "For as ye in times past have not believed God, yet have now obtained mercy they also may obtain mercy."

Paul is going back to the times that the twelve tribes fell into idolatry, and did not believe God. It was through their unbelief that God made His plan of salvation to the Gentiles, through Jesus Christ death and shed blood on the cross.

Romans 11:31 "Even so have these also now not believed, that through your mercy they also may obtain mercy."

In other words it is all part of God's overall plan. Remember how Paul used the likeness of an good olive tree, and when the natural branches were pruned away, the wild olive branches were graffed in, which were the Gentiles. It was because to Israel's fall that the Gentiles obtained salvation, and yet in due time, even in the Millennium, the natural branches will be grafted back on the tree.

This is to show that God loves all of His children, and that each one that calls themselves of God, should treat all of the others of that tree [Christ] with respect and dignity.

Romans 11:32 "For God hath concluded them all in unbelief, that He might have mercy upon all."

God's plan is so design that He may have mercy on all men. Though all men were born into this flesh age in disbelief, God's plan is perfect even though most men and women just can't see that plan. God's plan has come to pass exactly as it was written, and it will come to a completion right on schedule as prophesied. God has shown us in these last four chapters that He will used His called and election for His purpose and to complete His will.

Romans 11:33 "O the depth of the riches both of wisdom and knowledge of God! how unsearchable are His judgments, and His ways past finding out!"

Paul is saying that when we search the Scriptures, we can have the wisdom and knowledge of God's will. God's Word is both His will and His plan. In those Scriptures we can find out all the mysteries of His ways if we just search the Word for them. God's judgments and His ways are always fair.

Romans 11:34 "For who hath know the mind of the Lord? or who hath been His counsellor?

There is no one that knows the mind of the Lord! However we are to seek after that wisdom, and He will reveal to us what is necessary for us to understand. This is a continuing thing that you must do all your life, and for that searching He gives everlasting life. We can only find the way that God wants us to follow, by searching it out in the Word.

We don't counsel or minister to God, He counsels us, and ministers to our needs. The Word of God is our Counsel, and we can seek that advice whenever we desire.

Romans 11:35 "Or who hath first given to Him, and it shall be recompensed unto him again?"

Who has ever given anything to God, but what God didn't give back many times over. If you give God a hard time, He also has ways of even giving that back to you many fold. You can never out give to God.

Romans 11:36 "For of Him, and through Him, and to Him, are all things: to Whom be glory for ever. Amen."

All good things that come our way, come from the Father, for the heavenly Father knows all things, gives all things, and all things are made by Him, and to Him only goes all the glory. "Amen".

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